The uterine neck is that part of the uterus that is exposed to the exterior, and is located at the rear of the vagina.
Among the diseases that may affect the uterine neck, we may mention: infections (cervicitis), endocervical polyps, cysts, everted cylindrical epithelium and cervical cancer.
Diseases of the uterine neck
- Endocervical polyps
- Everted cylindrical epithelium
- Cancer of the uterine neck
Most of the inflammatory processes affecting the neck of the uterus are the result of agents, either infectious or non-infectious, that act at this point.
Among the infectious agents we may mention bacterial types (gonorrhoeae, clamydia), viral agents (human papilloma virus or HPV) and candidiasis.
Among the non-infectious agents are physical trauma, chemical irritants and previous uterine neck surgery.
These are growths of variable size that protrude through the external orifice of the uterine neck.
They often exhibit no symptoms, although are sometimes accompanied by irregular vaginal blood loss, in which case extirpation at a local health clinic is recommended.
They are sometimes associated with inflammatory processes of the uterine neck.
Naboth cysts are the product of an obstruction in the glandular tissue of the uterine neck, leading to an accumulation of mucous secretion that forms a cyst.
The volume of these cysts may vary, as well as their location at the neck of the uterus.
Other cysts of the uterine neck may be caused by endometriosis or parasitic inclusions.
Everted cylindrical epithelium
Everted cylindrical epithelium, also known as ectopy, is frequently found in infancy, during pregnancy or when the patient is under treatment with hormonal contraceptives.
It often disappears with the onset of the menopause.
It only requires treatment if it exhibits the symptoms described (hematic loss).
Cancer of the uterine neck
This is one of the most frequent cancers affecting the female reproductive system.
In most cases, the cause of this type of cancer is the human papilloma virus (HPV).
Although the diagnosis of the presence of this virus by means of cervical cytology (the Papanicolaou test), colposcopy, cervical biopsy, hibridization techniques, etc., may cause alarm among the female population, it must be remembered that many years may pass between the moment when the virus reaches the neck of the uterus until the point at which the cancer eventually appears (should this occur), during which time a suitable diagnosis can be performed and treatment followed to prevent cervical cancer from developing.