Ear

Serous Otitis or Secretory Otitis Media
Serous otitis or secretory otitis media is an inflammation of the middle ear in which there is liquid collection but no signs of acute infection. It is frequent in children bellow seven years old its highest incidence is in 2 year old children, and it usually affects both ears.
The main cause is Eustachian trump dysfunction and adenoid hypertrophy.
In adults, it is frequent in patients with chronic rhinitis or recurrent upper respiratory tract catarrh. If it affects only one ear, the doctor must discard the possibility of rhinopharynx tumour.
The most common treatment consists in placing ventilation tubes in the eardrum (eardrum drainage). Adenoidectomy is also usually performed.
An adult, once discarded the rhinopharynx problem, will have a ventilation tube placed in the affected ear.

Myringoplasty

It is the surgical treatment to repair eardrum perforations. It consists in placing a temporalis fascia free graft to close the perforation and thus restore the audition.
Depending on the anatomic conditions of the external auditory canal this surgery may be performed with local anaesthesia and sedation (endaural technique) or behind the canal (retroauricular technique) with general anaesthesia.

Tympanoplasty

Tympanoplasty is a surgery procedure to reconstruct middle ear auditive mechanism (eardrum, ossicular chain). Repairing the eardrum membrane is commonly called myringioplasty or type 1 tympanoplasty. When it is the ossicular chain which has to be repaired, the procedure is called type 2 tympanoplasty, type 3 tympanoplasty, etc. Stapedectomy
It's a middle ear surgical procedure to treat otosclerosis.
Otosclerosis is the ossification of the labyrinth capsule which fixates the stapes in the oval window and interferes with sound passing waves to the inner ear, thus causing hearing loss.

Mastoidectomy

It is a group of surgical techniques used in treating chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma, removing all the keratinized epithelium from the middle ear and mastoids.