These are circulatory webs of a reddish blue color that are visible in legs, especially in the calfs and that are caused by circulation or circulatory stagnation..
Spider veins are a widening of the subpapillary venous plexuses which are visible at a simple glance because they are located right underneath the epidermis, which constitute an inconvenient aesthetic and represent one of the pathologies that are most frequently seen in physicians’ consultations..
Spider veins are divided according to their clinical appearance into four categories: simple or lineal, like a tree, in a web or star.
There are two common types of spider veins in the legs of women, in addition to the red and blue veins:
- The parallel lineal type, which seems to appear in the inside of the muscle,
- The three patern, observed most frequently in the lateral facet of the muscle.
- Among the major causes or conditions associated with spider veins that may appear in the lower extremities are: genetic factors and conditions acquired by a secondary cutaneous component.
Currently, different methods of treatment, microsclerosis and laser photocoagulation, are the most common ones in existence.
As occurs with varicose veins, the presence of spider veins represents no correlation with age.
- Effective prevention
There are no real and certain methods to prevent varicose veins. But lifestyle indisputably influences their appearance and evolution. Practicing a sport, gymnastics, walking, massages that facilitate return of circulation and avoid stagnation of blood in the legs impedes their evolution and retards their development. Maintaining the legs high above the waist of the body, in such a manner that circulatory return is inverted and return circulation goes down instead of up, vigilance of hormonal disorders, correct diet, avoiding tight fitting clothes (girdles, etc.) and, in particular, a daily attention to obesity and a sedentary life constitute the essential rules of prevention; all help to prevent varicose veins.
Also, it is advisable in patients with venous problems in the lower extremities that they try to sleep in a position with the legs slightly elevated, to take daily baths with cold water for some minutes on each leg and to wear compression stockings as protection and support. It is good to walk barefoot and on the ends of the feet for a few minutes daily and to sleep on the spine, raising the legs and pedaling forward and backward a few minutes with the feet elevated. Lying down on the spine alternatively, raising the legs and touching with the hands the end of each foot, helps to improve the condition. In position firm, raising the ends of the feet, as well.
Spider veins are treated easily with cryotherapy (by cold) and also by laser.
Sclerotherapy has been the same since the appearance of the hypodermic needle, what has changed in time have been the schlerotherapy liquids that have gone from iodine and alcohol to mercury bichloride passing through different compounds of sodium and hypertonic glucose solutions or soapy solutions with oily acids of different origins.
The current schlerotherapy agents are effective and more innocuous such as hydroxipolyetoxydodecane (etoxisclerol), discovered by Henschelt in 1966.
The requirements for a sclerosing agent must be:
- That it be a stable product, in order to ensure a uniform action.
- Easy to use: preferably of a clear color in order to reveal aspirated blood and to have some physical-chemical conditions that permit a rapid and effective technique
- That it be light: if it thickens, it obstructs the needles
- That it be painless: an important condition
- That it be innocuous: its action must be limited to cause an aseptic chemical inflammation, localized in the far parts of the injected point, the consequence of which is the destruction of the venous endothelium y the introduction of small thrombus firmly adhering to the endovein without involving the rest of the caps of the venous wall. That is to say, this might provoke an endophlebitis without periophlebitis.
- Non-clotting, since it is a schlerosing agent, just put in contact with blood, it coagulates, it tends to obstruct the tip of the syringe and causes to bring about the injection in a rapid way, by increasing the risk of provoking an extravasation.
- Active and effective: in order to permit ambulatory forms of treatment
- Atoxic and hypoallergenic: administrated in proper quantities.
- Not provoke a secondary thrombosis
- Having a limited and controllable action.
- Current Sclerotherapy agents
- Iodine (Varioglobin)
- Sodium Tetradecyl sulphate (trombovar, sotradecol)
- Sodium Salicitate
- Hydroxypolyetoxydodecane (Etoxysclerol)
- Cromique glycerin (Scleromo)
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