Joint hypermobility syndrome

Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is a condition in which the joints of the body can move beyond normal limits due to excessive laxity of the ligaments and muscles surrounding the joint. The prevalence of JAS varies according to the population studied, but is estimated to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population.

The etiopathogenesis of joint hypermobility syndrome is due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Several mutations have been identified in genes related to collagen synthesis and structure, such as type V collagen, which may predispose to joint hypermobility. In addition, a higher frequency of SHA has been observed in people with anxiety disorders, depression and autism spectrum disorders.

The diagnosis of joint hypermobility syndrome is based on a combination of clinical criteria, such as the presence of joint hypermobility in several joints and the absence of signs of joint inflammation. Complementary tests, such as assessment of muscle strength and joint stability, as well as genetic studies in selected cases, may also be performed.

Treatment of joint hypermobility syndrome focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing complications. Physical exercises are recommended to strengthen muscles and improve joint stability. In addition, orthopedic devices, such as splints or braces, may be used to help reduce hypermobility in the affected joints. In cases of chronic pain, analgesics or physical therapy may be prescribed to relieve symptoms.