Sacral cyst

Sinus Pilonidal (Quiste dermoide)


Today, there is still the question of whether it is congenital, due to inclusions of ectodermal tissue, or is acquired, as a result of the introduction of a bundle of hair into the natal cleft.

The pilonidal cavity is located in the midline and in most cases has longitudinal direction. It varies in length from 1 to 15 cm. The walls of the cavity are made up of dense fibrous tissue Pilonidal disease is caused by infection of the hair follicles of the upper area of the intergluteal groove (division between the buttocks).

A pilonidal abscess is a collection of pus at the site of infection; A pilonidal sinus is a wound with chronic outflow of pus at that level.

It usually occurs in young, white, high-haired males.

To distinguish it from other infections, the doctor looks for dimples (small holes in the infected area).

A pilonidal sinus can cause pain and swelling.


The disease may present as an acute abscess at the base of the spine (sacrococcygea region).

It may open spontaneously, or it may require incision by a doctor. This process can have many recurrences. Over time a chronic cyst develops. The patient may complain of either acute pain and inflammation of the sacrococcygea region, which will make suspect a pilonidal abscess, or chronic spotting of their underwear and a slightly painful area in the intergluteal crease.

Diagnosis of pilonidal sinus

Fundamentally clinical.

A painful and fluctuating mass is the most common manifestation of the acute process.

In the chronic state, the diagnosis is confirmed by the opening of the cyst in the intergluteal fold. The best treatment for most patients with a pilonidal abscess is incision and drainage. Pain relief is almost immediate. After the abscess has healed properly, definitive surgery of the chronic pilonidal cyst may be performed, either by marsupialization or by total excision of the cystic tract.