Paget's disease of bone is a chronic skeletal disorder characterized by an abnormal bone remodeling process.
Paget's disease of bone mainly affects people over 50 years of age, with prevalence varying by geographic region. It is most common in Europe, Australia, New Zealand and North America, and less common in Asia and Africa. The exact cause of the disease is unknown, but it is thought to be related to genetic and environmental factors.
Paget's disease of bone is characterized by an excessive increase in the activity of osteoclasts (cells responsible for bone resorption) and osteoblasts (cells responsible for bone formation). This causes an increase in the quantity of bone, but of poor quality, which can lead to complications such as bone deformities, pathological fractures and pain.
The diagnosis of Paget's disease of bone is made by a combination of imaging techniques (X-rays, bone scan, CT scan or MRI), blood tests to measure levels of alkaline phosphatase and other bone markers, and clinical evaluation of the patient. Symptoms of the disease may include bone pain, deformities, pathological fractures, gait disturbances, hearing loss, headache and vision problems.
The treatment of Paget's disease of bone depends on the severity of the disease and the patient's symptoms. In general, medications are used to inhibit osteoclast activity (such as zoledronic acid or pamidronate), to reduce pain (such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or opioid analgesics) and to improve bone function (such as vitamin D and calcium). In severe cases, surgery may be considered to correct bone deformities or to strengthen bones that are at risk of fracture.
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