Raynaud's disease

Raynaud's disease is a vascular disorder characterized by episodes of vasoconstriction in the fingers or toes, often in response to cold or emotional stress. These episodes can cause skin color changes, from white to blue to red, as well as pain, numbness and tingling.


Raynaud's disease is more common in women than in men, and can occur at any age, although it is more common in people between 15 and 30 years of age. It is also more common in people living in cold climates.


The exact cause of Raynaud's disease is not known, but it is believed to be the result of an exaggerated response of the nervous system and blood vessels to certain triggers, such as cold or emotional stress. It has also been linked to autoimmune diseases and collagen disorders, such as lupus and scleroderma.


Diagnosis is based on the patient's symptoms, such as color changes in the fingers or toes, and the patient's medical history. Diagnostic tests, such as imaging tests like capillaroscopy and blood tests, may be performed to rule out other medical conditions that may cause similar symptoms.


Treatment of Raynaud's disease depends on the severity of symptoms and frequency of episodes. Treatments include avoiding triggers, such as cold and emotional stress, and keeping hands and feet warm. Medications that dilate blood vessels and reduce symptoms, such as calcium channel blockers and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, may also be prescribed.