Behçet's syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the presence of mouth ulcers, skin and eye lesions, and other systemic manifestations.
The etiology of Behçet's syndrome is not completely understood, but it is believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. A strong association with the HLA-B51 antigen and other HLA alleles has been identified, suggesting a genetic basis for the disease. In addition, it has been suggested that viral and bacterial infections may trigger the inflammatory response that characterizes the disease.
The diagnosis of Behçet's syndrome is based on the presence of a combination of clinical symptoms, including recurrent oral ulcers, skin lesions, ocular inflammation, and other systemic symptoms. There is no specific test for the diagnosis of the disease, but the diagnostic criteria established by the International Society for the Study of Behçet's Syndrome may be useful in the evaluation of patients.
Treatment of Behçet's syndrome focuses on control of inflammation and prevention of complications. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressants are the first-line treatments for active disease. Biologic agents, such as infliximab and adalimumab, have also been used in patients refractory to other treatments. For severe ocular lesions, intravitreal corticosteroid injections may be necessary. In addition, colchicine therapy may be recommended to reduce the frequency and duration of mouth ulcer flare-ups. Comprehensive care of the patient with Behçet's syndrome should include a multidisciplinary approach involving rheumatologists, ophthalmologists and dermatologists, among other specialists depending on the manifestations of the disease.
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