Retina (AMD)

The retina, innermost layer of the eye globe, is a transparent tissue composed of many photosensitive cells which receive light stimuli and transmit them through nerve terminals to the brain. There are 2 types of photoreceptor cells: cones and rods.

Cones function better in daylight and are specialized for color vision. Rods are more numerous and function in evening light or darkness. Cones are more plentiful in the center of the retina, also called the macula or fovea, and rods are found in the periphery. When cones and rods are stimulated by light, they generate impulses which are transmitted through their own nerve fibers, which in turn come together to form the optic nerve.

The retina is fed by retinal artery vessels and by capillaries of the choroid, the outermost vascularized layer of the retina.